Most widely held works about Abimael Guzmán Reynoso La cuarta espada: la historia de Abimael Guzmán y Sendero Luminoso by Santiago Roncagliolo. 12 de septiembre: La policía captura al dirigente de Sendero Luminoso, Abimael Guzmán, junto a su pareja sentimental y número dos de la. Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reinoso, peruano, de setenta y uno años de terrorismo en agravio del Estado, y por el delito contra la vida.
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Alberto Fujimori Fujimori  Spanish pronunciation: His government is credited with the creation of Fujimorismdefeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru’s macroeconomic stability. A Peruvian of Japanese descent Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in On arriving in Japan, he attempted to resign his presidency via faxbut his resignation was rejected by the Congress of the Republicwhich preferred to remove him from office by the process of impeachment.
Wanted in Peru on charges of corruption and human rights abuses, Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until his arrest while visiting Chile in November The verdict, delivered by a three-judge panel, marked the first time that an elected head of state has been extradited to his home country, tried and convicted of human rights violations. Fujimori was specifically found guilty of murder, bodily harm and two cases of kidnapping. According to government records, Fujimori was born on 28 Julyin Mirafloresa district of Lima.
In Julythe news magazine Caretas alleged that Fujimori had actually been born in Japan, in his father’s hometown of KawachiKumamoto Prefecture. While he spoke mainly Japanese at home, Fujimori also learned to become a proficient Spanish speaker during his years at school. He went on to undergraduate studies at the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina ingraduating in first in his class as an agricultural engineer.
The following year he lectured on mathematics at the university. In he went to study physics at the University of Strasbourg in France. On a Ford scholarship, Fujimori also attended the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee  in the United States, where he obtained his master’s degree in mathematics in Inhe married Susana Higuchialso Japanese-Peruvian. They had four children, including a daughter, Keikoand a son, Kenjiwho would later follow their father into politics.
In recognition of his academic achievements, the sciences faculty of the Universidad Nacional Agraria offered Fujimori the deanship and in appointed him to the rectorship of the university, which he held until He also hosted a TV show called “Concertando” from toon Peru’s state-owned network, Channel 7. Fujimori won the presidential election as a dark horse candidate under the banner of Cambio 90 “cambio” means “change” beating world-renowned writer Mario Vargas Llosa in a surprising upset.
He exploited popular distrust of Vargas Llosa’s identification with the existing Peruvian political establishment, and uncertainty about his plans for neoliberal economic reforms.
During the campaign, Fujimori was nicknamed El Chinowhich roughly translates to ” Chinaman “; it is common for people of any East Asian descent to be called chino in Peru, as elsewhere in Latin America, both derogatively and affectionately.
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Although he is of Japanese heritage, Fujimori has suggested that he was always gladdened by the term, which he perceived as a term of affection. During his first term in office, Fujimori enacted wide-ranging guzzman reforms, known as Fujishock.
This program bore little resemblance to his campaign platform and was in fact more drastic than anything Vargas Llosa had proposed. Fujimori’s initiative relaxed private sector price controlsdrastically reduced government subsidies and government employment, eliminated all exchange controlsand also reduced restrictions on investment, imports, and capital.
However, many do not attribute the Fujishock to Fujimori. The document, written by John Williamson inconsists of ten measures that would lead to a healthy economic policy.
Under pressure from the International Monetary Fund IMFthe Peruvian government was to follow the guidelines set by the international finance community. The ten points were: Fujimori also had difficulty combatting the Maoist Shining Path Spanish: Sendero Luminoso guerrilla organization due largely to what he perceived as intransigence and obstructionism in Congress.
In response to the political deadlockFujimori, with the support of the military, on 5 Aprilcarried out a presidential coup. He shut down Congress, suspended the constitution, and purged the judiciary. The coup was welcomed by the public, according to numerous polls. Fujimori’s coup was immediately met with near-unanimous condemnation from the international community. Fujimori then proposed scheduling elections for a Democratic Constituent Congress CCDwhich would draft a new constitution to be ratified by a national referendum.
Despite a lack of consensus among political forces in Peru regarding this proposal, an ad hoc OAS meeting of ministers nevertheless endorsed this scenario in mid-May.
Elections for the CCD were held 22 November Various states individually condemned the coup. Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations, and Argentina withdrew its ambassador. International lenders delayed planned or projected loans, and the United States, Germany and Spain suspended all non-humanitarian aid to Peru. The coup appeared to threaten the reinsertion strategy for economic recovery, and complicated the process of clearing Peru’s arrears with the International Monetary Fund.
Fujimori’s autogolpe became a major obstacle to relations, as the United States immediately suspended all military and economic aid, with exceptions for counter-narcotic and humanitarian funds.
Bush administration changed its position and officially recognized Fujimori as the legitimate leader of Peru, partly because he was willing to implement economic austerity measures, but also because of his adamant opposition to the Shining Path.
He called elections for a Democratic Constitutional Congressto serve as a legislature and a constituent assembly. Fujimori supporters won a majority of the seats in this body, and drafted a new constitution in In a referendumthe coup and the Constitution of were approved by a narrow margin of less than five percent. Later in the year, on 13 November, General Jaime Salinas led a failed military coup.
Salinas asserted that his intentions were to turn Fujimori over to be tried for violating the Peruvian constitution. InFujimori separated from his wife Susana Higuchi in a noisy, public divorce. He formally stripped her of the title First Lady in Augustappointing their eldest daughter First Lady in her stead. Higuchi publicly denounced Fujimori as a “tyrant” and claimed that his administration was corrupt.
They formally divorced in In Fujimori’s first term of office, over 3, Peruvians were killed in political murders. The Constitution allowed Fujimori to run for a second term, and in Aprilat the height of his popularity, Fujimori easily won reelection with almost two-thirds of the vote. Fujimori’s supporters won comfortable majorities in the legislature. One of the first acts of the new congress was to declare an amnesty for all members of the Peruvian military or police accused or convicted of human rights abuses between and The treaty allowed the two countries to obtain international funds for developing the border region.
Fujimori also settled some issues with Chile, Peru’s southern neighbor, which had been unresolved since the Treaty of Lima. The election was the turning point in Fujimori’s career.
Peruvians began to be more concerned about freedom of speech and the press. However, before he was sworn in for a second term, Fujimori stripped two universities of their abiimael and reshuffled the national electoral board. This led his opponents to call him “Chinochet,” a reference to his previous nickname and to Chilean ruler Augusto Pinochet.
According to a poll by the Peruvian Research and Marketing Company conducted in In addition to the fate of democracy under Fujimori, Peruvians were becoming increasingly interested in the myriad allegations of criminality that involved Fujimori and his chief of the National Intelligence Service SINVladimiro Montesinos.
Using SIN, Fujimori gained control of the majority of the armed forces, with Financial Times stating that “[i]n no other country in Latin America did a president have so much control over the armed forces”. The constitution limited a presidency to two terms.
Shortly after Fujimori began his second term, his supporters in Congress passed a law of “authentic interpretation” which effectively allowed him to baimael for another term in A effort to repeal this law by referendum failed. Peruvian electoral bodies, which were politically sympathetic to Fujimori, abimaael his argument that the two-term restriction did not apply to him, as it was enacted while he was already in office.
Eventually, Fujimori was credited with Despite reports of numerous irregularities, the international observers recognized an adjusted victory of Fujimori. His primary opponent, Alejandro Toledocalled for his supporters to spoil their ballots in the runoff by writing “No to fraud!
Abimael Guzmán – Wikipedia
International observers pulled out of the country after Fujimori refused to delay the runoff. In the runoff, Fujimori won bjografia While votes for Toledo declined from Although Fujimori won the runoff with only a bare majority, rumors of irregularities led most of the international community to shun his third swearing-in on 28 July.
For the next seven weeks, there were daily demonstrations in front of the presidential palace. As a conciliatory gesture, Fujimori appointed former opposition candidate Federico Salas as prime minister. However, opposition parties in Parliament refused to support this move, and Toledo campaigned vigorously to have the election annulled.
Fujimori’s support virtually collapsed, and a few days later he announced in a nationwide address that he would shut down the SIN and call new elections, in which he would not be a candidate.
On 10 November, Fujimori won approval from Congress to hold elections on 8 April On 17 November, Fujimori traveled from Brunei to Tokyo, where he submitted his presidential resignation via fax. Congress refused to accept his resignation, instead voting 62—9 to remove Fujimori from office on the grounds that he was “permanently morally disabled.
On 19 November, government ministers presented their resignations en bloc. Paniagua was next in line, and became interim president to oversee the April elections.
That same year, more than one-third of Peru’s courts lacked a justice of the peace, because of Shining Path intimidation.
Guzmán Reynoso, Abimael [WorldCat Identities]
Union leaders and military officials were also assassinated throughout aibmael s. By the early s, some parts of the country were under the control of the insurgents, in territories known as “zonas liberadas” “liberated zones”where inhabitants lived guzkan the rule of these groups and paid them taxes. The leadership of the Shining Path was largely university students and teachers.
ByShining Path guerrilla attacks had claimed an estimated 20, lives over preceding 12 years. On 16 Biohrafia the Tarata Bombingin biografja several car bombs exploded in Lima’s wealthiest district, killed over 40 people; the bombings were characterized by one commentator as an “offensive to challenge President Albert Fujimori.
Bombs hit banks, hotels, schools, restaurants, police stations bioggafia shops Fujimori has been credited by many Peruvians with ending the fifteen-year reign of terror of the Shining Path. As part of his anti-insurgency efforts, Fujimori granted the military broad powers to arrest suspected insurgents and try them in secret military courts with few legal rights.
This measure has often been criticized for compromising the fundamental democratic and human right to an open trial wherein the accused faces the accuser.
Fujimori contended that these measures were both justified and also necessary. Members of the judiciary were too afraid to charge the alleged insurgents, and judges and prosecutors had very legitimate fears of reprisals against them or their families.
Insurgent activity was in decline by the end of and Fujimori took credit for this abatement, claiming that his campaign had largely eliminated the insurgent threat.