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Biosurfactant properties, applications and production: Recibido diciembre Aceptado marzo Aunque una amplia gama de microorganismos son capaces de sintetizar biotensoactivos, las bacterias son las principales productoras.

The properties of surfactants are characterized principally by four parameters: Surfactants are synthesized chemically or biologically, in which case they are called biosurfactants.

Although an extensive number of microorganisms are capable of synthesizing biosurfactants, they are mainly produced by bacteria. Biosurfactants have advantages over chemical surfactants due to their compatibility with the environment, low toxicity and biodegradability.

However, the principal disadvantage is their high production cost in some cases. In this paper the chemical and microbiological properties of surfactants and biosurfactants are described as well as biosurfactant applications, principally in the bioremediation field.

The effect of the main process variables on the production of biosurfactants is also discussed, particularly of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Estas dos clases de biotensoactivos poseen actividad antibacteriana debido a su capacidad de solubilizar enzimas de membrana.

Varios tipos de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias, levaduras y hongos, poseen un metabolismo capaz de producir biotensoactivos Correa et al.

Cuando estos sustratos son inaccesibles por su baja solubilidad, competencia con otros microorganismos u otro tipo de factor ambiental, utilizan a cxrne biotensoactivos capacidae disponer de la fuente de carbono.

Otros biotensoactivos y sus microorganismos productores. Microorganismos como Acinetobacter spp. En el caso de Acinetobacter spp. Las cepas denominadas F2. En la agricultura, los biotensoactivos son aplicados emulsificanye a su actividad insecticida y herbicida. Ejemplo de esta actividad son los productos utilizados por la empresa Rhamnolipods Co. Por ejemplo, la solubilidad del octadecano en agua es emulsificannte 0. Este comportamiento es corroborado por una extensa cantidad de trabajos.

Existen diversos procedimientos para el uso ee microorganismos productores de biotensoactivos en los procesos de MEOR. Una de las principales ventajas de los biotensoactivos es que son compatibles con la piel, ya que no son irritantes Kleckner y Kosaric Elementos traza como hierro y manganeso modifican el rendimiento del biotensoactivo Mukherjee et al.

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Un efecto de la fuente de carbono en el biotensoactivo producido fue observado por Robert et al. Cultivaron cepas de Flavobacterium sp. Cultivada con glucosa, B. Bacillus subtilis produce surfactina con sacarosa como fuente de carbono Makkar y Cameotra Tanto Guerra Santos et al.

Guerra Santos et al. El tercero es la termoestabilidad que le permite mantener su capacidad tensoactiva. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of new rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa AT10 from soybean oil refinery wastes.

Effect of combined nutrients on biosurfactant emulsoficante by Pseudomonas putida. Surfactin, a crystalline peptidelipid surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis: Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: Biosurfactants, more in demand than ever.

Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Identification and characterization of a soil bacterium with extracellular emulsifying activity. On a metabolic product of Ps.

Structure and characterization of favolipids, a novel class of biosurfactants produced by Flavobacterium sp. Biosurfactants for cosmetic applications. Biosurfactantenhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrification: Microbial surfactants and their use in field studies of soil remediation.

Remediation of contaminated soil by surfactantaided soil washing. Isolation of a bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica. Production of a biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola. Surface activities of Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas. Surface active properties of a biosurfactant from Corynebacterium lepus. Production of biosurfactants by hydrocarbon degrading Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus erythropolis.

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Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioremediation of slop oil contaminated soil. Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Biosurfactant production by a soil Pseudomonas strain growing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Distillery and curd whey waste as viable alternative sources for biosurfactant production. Structure of a rhamnolipid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The influence of vegetable oils on biosurfactant production by Serratia mercescens. Emulsification of hydrocarbons by subsurface bacteria. Surfaceactive compounds from microorganisms. Microbial Processes for Bioremediation.

Batelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biosurfactant production in continuous culture with glucose as carbon source. Aqueous solution of the paraffinchains salts: Bioremediation of contaminated soils. Formation of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its function in emulsificnate fermentation. A halotolerant biosurfactant producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery. Microbial production of biosurfactants and their importance.

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Scale up studies for the production of biosurfactant in packed column bioreactor. Cloud point phenomenon in amphiphilic drug solutions. A cloud point study on the micellar growth carnw an amphiphilic drug in the presence of alcohol and ionic surfactant. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by Candida sp.

Fluorinated surfactants and repellents. Marcel Dekker, Nueva York. Biosurfactants and their application for soil bioremediation.

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Surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in soilwater suspensions. Production of biosurfactant at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions by a strain of Bacillus subtilis. An update on the use of unconventional substrates for biosurfactant production and their new applications.

Comparative analysis of the lipids of Acinetobacter species grown on hexadecane. Biological role of gramicidin S in spore functions. A new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Arthrobacter sp. Effect of inoculation on the biodegradation of weathered Prudhoe Capacdiad crude oil. Towards commercial production of microbial surfactants. Aerobic stepwise hydrocarbon degradation and formation of biosurfactants by an original soil population in a stirred reactor. Effect of the addition of microbial surfactants on hydrocarbon degradation in a soil population in a stirred reactor.

Production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants. Acidic biopolymers as dispersants for ceramic processing. Recent trends in the biochemistry of surfactin. Environmental importance of rhamnolipid production from molasses as a carbon source. Biosurfactant production with glucose as a carbon source.

Effect of the carbon source on biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T1. A microbial polymer that changes the surface properties of limestone: Effect of biodispersan in grinding limestone and making paper. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 isolated dde oil environments. Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhIA enzyme is involved in rhamnolipid and polyhydroxyalkanoate production.

Novel surface tension isotherm for surfactants based on local density functional theory. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production from Nocardia amarae. Production and characterization of biosurfactants from Bacillus licheniformis F2. Effect of the lipopeptide antibiotic, iturin A, on morphology and membrane ultrastructure of yeast cells. Chemical principles of textile conservation.