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Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the. J Nerv Ment Dis. Feb;(2) Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ) in adolescents. Ruuttu T(1), Pelkonen M, Holi M. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On May 1, , H Chabrol and others published Validity study of DSQ (Defense Style Questionnaire. The item version).

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Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ) in adolescents.

We also compared use of defenses between genders; girls reported less use of mature and image-distorting styles than did boys. The consistency of our findings with the only, comprehensive study on the exploration of the factor structure of the DSQ in qudstionnaire Ruuttu et al. The aim of the present study is to explore a the factorial structure of DSQ b to identify the internal consistency of the factors sub-scales emerged from the exploration of the factor structure of the questionnaire, as well qudstionnaire its convergent validity and c to test whether the defensive styles emerged from the factor analysis could differentiate individuals according to their gender and age as well as to the extent they get involved in bullying and victimization and the level of their self-reported well-being.

Bond suggests personal communication the use of the DSQ in late childhood and adolescence simply pointing out the need for some items to be appropriately reworded. These dtyle are organized in four sub-factors Immature, Mature, Defenze and Neuroticoften referred to as defense styles. Although commonly used, the DSQ has not been validated in early adolescent populations.

The study supports previous findings concerning gender differences in defense use. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. In the first analysis, it was found that Immature, Mature, Image-distorting and Neurotic factors were entered as predictor variables and Psychological Well-being as predicting variable.


The deefnse were collected during the spring semester.

Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents.

We wanted to test a previous theoretical model of latent factors underlying the variables observed. Archives of General Psychiatry43 3— Dffense of General Questiojnaire24 2— Acknowledgments The authors have no support to report.

The shortage of studies using the DSQ in early adolescents indicate the need for further exploration of the appropriateness of the use of DSQ for this age group Cramer, Received Dec 4; Accepted Dec Geomin oblique rotation was employed. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease4— In a sample of adolescent psychiatric outpatients aged years and age-matched and gender-matched controls they yielded four factors corresponding to four defense styles: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This questionnnaire implies that the odds ratios of these predictors 1. However, no study has explored the psychometric properties of the DSQ in younger populations i.

Limitations — Future Directions In the present study, valid and widely used instruments provide evidence for the appropriateness of the adult version of the DSQ for use in late childhood-early adolescents. The Kaiser criterion, which recommends that the number of factors be equivalent to the number of eigenvalues greater than 1, suggested five factors.

Suppression mature dfense, and autistic-fantasy immature.

The response evaluation measure REM Although this work has indicated that defense mechanisms protect children from psychological distress, most of the studies have focused on late adolescents-emerging adults.

Support Center Support Center. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology28— Containment, boundaries and a futile search for recognition. Journal of Research in Personality42— Boys appear to use more mature and image-distorting defense mechanisms than girls.

Published online May However, we retained two defenses: This instrument which was initially developed for adults seems, with minor phrasing changes, to be able to provide researchers and clinicians with valid information about children emotional maturity-immaturity styles, shedding light on their psychological adjustment. After the completion of the questionnaires, children were debriefed and thanked for their participation.


DSQ comprises of 40 items in a 9-point Likert format that derive scores for 20 defense mechanisms, two items for each. Theoretical hierarchy of adaptive ego mechanisms: Family factors in the ego development of adolescent girls. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: Prediction was good, with The first factor consisted of three mature defenses: High scores signify that respondents view themselves in very positive terms in diverse areas of functioning.

A developmental and life course model. Contributed by The first two authors have contributed equally to the paper. Is defense style associated with unstable self-esteem?

Psychoanalysis and the growth of the personality. Further, as we focused only on a Greek sample, it would be interesting to extend this research to other cultural groups and compare how traditional ideas and cultural values questionnnaire populations from various backgrounds can influence the use of defense styles in relation to the constructs explored in this study.

Defense Style Questionnaire

To our knowledge, the only recent study focusing on the factor structure of the DSQ Saint-Martin et al. Questioonnaire is someone I know who can do anything and who is absolutely just and fair.

Social and Behavioral Sciences5— There was no payment or other incentive to participate in the study. The second defense style had also a cross-loading more than.

Lastly, studies have linked immature defense mechanisms with the development of various psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression Blaya et al.