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Family farming in the agricultural census of Family farmers in the agricultural census of Brazil: To delimit the family farm in the Agricultural Census, the Ministry of Agrarian Development – MDA and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE, developed a methodology to identify the agricultural establishments registered in the census, according to the concept established by Law 11, of July 24, The paper presents the methodological steps used and some results.

The accomplishment of the Agricultural Census of shed light for a better understanding of the importance of Brazilian family farming, with its contours and nuances. The perfecting of its design, pointing out its potential and limitations, is fundamental to the efficiency of public policy. Based on a collaboration between the MDA and IBGE, the Agricultural Census made possible the filling of an important breach in official information for public policies on rural development: Ed July 24,Law n.

Ed scientific works and research groups have already conducted similar le with the results from previous agricultural census, but a categorized conceptual limitation of family farming was required which would attempt to satisfy the legal statement of Before touching on 117118 definition of family farming, it should be recalled that the Agricultural Census was based on:.

For the execution of the Agricultural Census, the questionnaires were substituted from paper to hand-held computers, the Personal Digital Assistant-PDA. Information was also collected that was georeferenced to the agricultural establishments, providing a basis for the formulation and the evaluation of future public policies.

To present the delimitation le family farming accomplished by the Agricultural Census, this article is divided into three sections. The first relates a brief evolution of the principle legal framework surrounding the concept of family farming, while the second section describes the criterion adopted for the limitation of family lel within the Agricultural Census. The last section leo the main results of the delimitation of dr farming in accordance with the previously described criteria.

The evolution of the legal framework re to family farming. Before presenting Law n. For the purposes of this Law, it is determined that: II – “Family Property”, is the rural property which is directly and personally operated by the farmer and his family, absorbing all their labor force, guaranteeing their sustenance, as well as social and economic progress, with a fixed maximum area per region and farming method, and eventual labor with the aid of a 111718 party.

In its 50th article, the Land Statute utilizes the concept of family property as one of the determining factors in the calculation of rural and fiscal modules.

The fiscal module, in its turn, is the defining element for the current legal classification as to the size of a property small, medium, and large. Furthermore, it makes them insusceptible to expropriation for the purpose of agricultural reform in small and medium-sized rural properties, as defined by law 4so long as the proprietor does not own another art. As one may observe, the Land Statute and the Constitution bind the familial character to property ownership, not re producers with a precarious or temporary access to the property.

This concept of “family property” remains unaltered in agrarian legislation.

On weekends, coffee is harvested without contracts or protective equipment | Danwatch

Nevertheless, when dealing with Social Security, the Constitution used a differentiated form to identify rural workers, of both sexes, who exercise their activities within a “regime of family economy”; these include the farmer, miner, and fisherman, the manner of property access aside articlewith wording by Constitutional Amendment n.

Obligatorily, the following fiscal persons are protected by Social Security: VII – as special policy holders: I – must be the proprietor, squatter, tenant, or partner. II – must be executing the work in a direct and personal manner, or with the aid of their family or, furthermore, with the aid of a third party should the activity require it. III – does not withhold any title, including in the form of lease, to an area that is greater than four or six fiscal modules, according to the current legislation.

V – proven, if representing a legal entity, to be implementable in their labor, pension, and fiscal obligations and, if a physical person, through the duration of their contract, a reliability with Social Security. VI – proven to reside on the land or nearby rural community; and. I – the beneficiary: The rural credit from PROGER RURAL and PRONAF maintained the amplitude of the special policy holders, meeting the needs of property holders and non-property holders squatters, tenants, and partnersand established two new limitations relative to the size of the enterprise and to the bond between income and the agricultural activity or extraction.


On an institutional level, implantation of PRONAF was followed by a redistribution of competencies within the ministries. In its 12th edition, made November 25, 117718, the Provisional Measure created the Ministry of Land Policy and Agrarian Development, with two areas of capacity: 20008 this same occasion, Decree n. Even before there was a definition given by ds specific law, the family farmers were recognized in other legal norms, for example Law n.

In andthe modern consolidation of the concept of the “family farmer” came to be with Law n. For the purposes of this Law, the family farmer and the rural family enterprise are considered to be those which practice activities in the rural environment, simultaneously meeting the following requisites: I – does not withhold, by any title, an area greater lfi 4 four fiscal modules.

II – predominantly utilizes labor of their own family within the economic activities of their establishment or enterprise. III – have a family income predominantly originated by economic activities tied to the establishment or enterprise 11178. IV – manages their establishment or enterprise with their family. I – foresters that lie meet all the following requisites set down at the head of this Article, cultivate native or exotic forests, and promote the sustainable management of those environments.

II – aqua-cultural farmers that simultaneously meet all the requisites set down at the head of this Article and explore hydraulic reservoirs with a total surface of up to 2ha two hectares or occupy m 3 cubic meters of water, when the exploration is conducted in cages. III – extraction workers that simultaneously meet the requisites set down in paragraph II, III, and IV at the head of this Article and who are engaged in fishery by hand within a rural environment, excluding miners 111718 diggers.

Included by Law n. Fe may be observed that there is a convergence between alterations in the standards that manage the family farmer and those of the special policy holder.

In the original wording of the social eli law, the use of employees for business activities was not permitted; farmers were only permitted the use of eventual third-party aid. However, PRONAF regulation went on to allow the hiring of up to two permanent employees in for characterization 2080 an agricultural family and access to the program 8. VII – as a special policy holder: Wording provided by Law n. In its justification, the authors highlighted the significant representation of family farmers among national producers and their contribution to social and economic development, and social inclusion within the country.

According to them, this occurred despite the fragile institutional structure which attended to agricultural families. Therefore, it was necessary to approve a law that would guarantee the legal foundations for permanent public policies directed toward this group.

It is important to note that changes in the legal framework regarding the concept of “family farming” occurred simultaneously at union debates and within academic studies conducted on the topic. As a union category, family farming has gone on to designate certain situations that, untilwere viewed as belonging to “rural workers” in a generic sense or, more specifically, to “small producers”. ed

On the one hand, this category emerged to envelope a diversity of new social and political identities which were constituted after the second half of the s, and which formed alliances with other segments, such as extraction workers and fishermen.

On the other hand, with the formulation the family farmer’s own union organization, a greater differentiation was established in relation to other “landless” segments, rural wagers and employees, especially regard to their demands for public policies MEDEIROS, The academic studies conducted during this period focused on Brazilian family farming from the standpoint of its development process which is unique from other societies, even utilizing international comparative dw.

An effort was made to define this segment 2008 on the official data that was available, especially from the Agricultural Census of and The application of the concept of Law n. To define family farmers in the Agricultural Census according to Law n. In other words, for the establishment to be classified as family farming, it must simultaneously meet all the conditions described below. It should be noted that the elaboration of the questionnaires applied by the Agricultural Census precedes the sanctioning of Law n.

Another important clarification concerns the research unit used in the Agricultural Census: The concept of family farming is related to the family unit, while that of the establishment is related to the productive unit.

On weekends, coffee is harvested without contracts or protective equipment

Although the most frequent situation is that in which the family is associated with only one establishment, there are cases with more than one agricultural establishment. In this way, there is a small super-estimation 9 of the group belonging to the category of family farming in this study, as it considers each establishment as a family unit.

The definition of the family farming group adopted the following methodological procedures. The Legal statement begins:. For the purposes of this Law, the family farmer and the rural family enterprise are considered to be those who practice activities in the rural environment, simultaneously fulfilling the following requisites In a quick interpretation, not utilized in this work, the first definition that could surface would be taken from the establishments located within the urban perimeters.


It so happens that in the Portuguese language and, therefore, in Brazilian legislation, there exists an overlap between the terms “rural” and “agricultural”, as these terms are considered synonymous. This definition is present in dictionaries of the Portuguese language:.

As such, this work used the term “rural” as expressed in Law n. The agricultural establishments, that are the registered unit of the Agricultural Census, provide exactly this definition:.

An agricultural establishment is every unit of production dedicated, partially or as a whole, to agricultural, forest, or aqua-cultural activities, subordinated to a single administration: We then chose to use all the agricultural establishments, interpreting “rural” as a synonym for “agricultural”, not excluding those located within the perimeters of urban centers from the category of family farming.

The perfect identification of rural with agricultural would be correct if the location of the rural areas was homogeneous and mono-active, which does correspond with the Brazil’s reality. In truth, a continuum occurs in the passage of urban areas to areas with a smaller population density, in such a way that it is not possible to distinguish exactly where the urban ends and the rural begins.

Other than the difficulty of defining what is urban and what is rural, even within the areas that are exclusively rural where the population density is very low, there is a significant part of the population that is occupied with non-agricultural activities, with the notable presence of pluriactivity among rural families.

The fiscal module of each Municipality, expressed in hectares, will be determined by taking under consideration the following factors: The agricultural establishment was not considered as family farming if the total area of the establishment, or respective ideal fractions, were greater than four fiscal modules, as established in the Special Instructions of INCRA All the pieces of the establishment were taken into account when computing the total area, including areas incorporated into the enterprise by lease, engaged or in a partnership, and subtracting the areas being leased out, by engagement or partnership.

In relation to the area of the establishment, IBGE calls attention to some cases of marginal occurrence, such as the case of agricultural establishments with an area that is not continuous or located in more than one census sector:. The areas that are not continuous, farmed by the same producer, were considered as a single establishment, as long as they were situated within the same census sector, utilizing the same technical resources machines, agrarian implements and instruments, pack animals, etc.

The establishment formed by non-continuous areas and whose areas are situated in distinct sectors, will receive the following treatment: 20008 cases did not have any type of treatment and the definitions adopted by IBGE were used for identifying the agricultural establishments and making lsi of their total area. It is important to note that tin calculating the ideal fraction, the total area of the establishment was divided by the number of producers that managed the establishment, men or women.

Despite the use of the term “proprietors”, this procedure was used for all ce of collective producers proprietors, tenants, partners, or occupants. IBGE also collected data from the production units that did not depend on a specific area. The farmers in these establishments were classified as “no area producers”. II – predominantly utilize their family’s own labor in the economic activities of their establishment or enterprise.

For those younger than 14 years of age, half the work period was taken into account. For the purpose of computing the seasonal fractions of labor, the agricultural year was considered to have work days. As such, the sum total of family work units unidades de trabalho familiar – UTF was obtained by adding the number of people both men and women, with family ties, and 14 or more years of age, including the person who manages the establishment to half the number of people with family ties who are younger than 14, plus the number of employees in “another condition” 13 who are 14 or older, plus half the number of employees in “another condition” with less than 14 years of age.

The total number of hired work units UTC was obtained by the sum of the number of permanent male and female employees and their family who are 14 years or older, plus half the number of permanent employees 2080 their family who are younger than 14 years of age, plus partner-employees and their family members who are 14 or older, plus half the number of partner-employees with family 20008 under 14, added to the result from dividing the fees paid in byand 20008 added to the result of dividing dw contract days by